Industrial Microbiology is a branch of applied microbiology in which microorganisms are used for the production of important substances, such as antibiotics, food products, enzymes, amino acids, vaccines, and fine chemicals. With respect to the scope, objectives, and activities, industrial microbiology is synonymous with the term fermentation, as fermentation includes any process mediated by or involving microorganisms in which a product of economic value is obtained. Industrial microbiology is achieved for large-scale use of microorganisms to synthesize products of commercial value and a wide variety of applications. Microbial products can be broadly categorized into: metabolic production; biotransformation; production of biofuels; treatment of organic and industrial wastes; recovery of metals; production of microbial biomass (microbial protein or single cell protein) for food and feed; production of biocontrol agents; and fermentation of food products. Microbial fermentation processes are therefore commercially exploited for the production of food ingredients. Metabolic engineering, a new approach involving the targeted and purposeful manipulation of the metabolic pathways of an organism, is being widely researched to improve the quality and yields of food ingredients. It typically involves alteration of cellular activities by the manipulation of the enzymatic transport, and regulatory functions of the cell using recombinant DNA and other genetic techniques. Understanding the metabolic pathways associated with these fermentation processes and the ability to redirect metabolic pathways can increase production of these metabolites and lead to production of novel metabolites and a diversified product base. Large-scale fermentation processes are specifically adjusted to microbial growth conditions.
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