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Immunology is the study of the immune system of higher organisms in relation to disease. Specifically, immunology can be defined as the branch of biology that is concerned with the structure and function of the immune system, the bodily distinction of self from non-self, and the use of antibody-based laboratory techniques or immunoassays. In general, the immune system of higher organisms can be broken down into two primary response systems that work together to create immunity. The two primary response systems are innate and adaptive immune responses, with the latter further divided into cell-mediated and antibody-mediated responses. The cell-mediated response is produced when a subset of sensitized white blood cells or lymphocytes directly attack material (e.g., usually a cell or a virus) that has been determined to be foreign to the body. The antibody-mediated response involves the transformation of a subset of lymphocytes into cells that produce and secrete specific antibodies against the foreign material. These two immune responses are triggered when foreign material is introduced into the host as depicted.

Session: 2 Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. It is a laboratory-based science that brings together biology and chemistry. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems. Biochemistry focuses on processes happening at a molecular level. It focuses on what’s happening inside our cells, studying components like proteins, lipids and organelles. It also looks at how cells communicate with each other, for example during growth or fighting illness. Biochemists need to understand how the structure of a molecule relates to its function, allowing them to predict how molecules will interact. Biochemistry covers a range of scientific disciplines, including genetics, microbiology, forensics, plant science and medicine. Because of its breadth, biochemistry is very important and advances in this field of science over the past 100 years have been staggering. It’s a very exciting time to be part of this fascinating area of study.

  • Cell biologyand signalling
  • Structure and function of molecules
  • Enzymology
  • Proteins and membranes
  • Disease mechanisms
  • Metabolism

Session: 3 Medicalmicrobiology

Medical microbiology involves the identification of microorganisms for the diagnosis of infectious diseases and the assessment of likely response to specific therapeutic interventions. Major categories of organisms include bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Microbiological methods combined with clinical symptoms, additional laboratory tests, and imaging techniques are used in combination to distinguish a true disease-associated infection from colonization with normal flora or other conditions, such as malignancies, inflammatory disorders, or autoimmune disorders, all of which have unique therapies and prognoses for the patient. Laboratories combine the use of traditional microscopy and culture methods, with a rapidly evolving set of molecular and proteomic techniques. Given the increase in immunocompromised patients due to an increase in transplantations, the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic, and the use of immunosuppressive agents to treat autoimmune disorders, diagnosis of microbial infections continues to be essential for many patients.

Session: 4 Food Microbiology

Food microbiology involves the study of microorganisms that colonize, modify, process, or contaminate and spoil food. This is one of the most diverse research areas in microbiology. Contains a wide variety of microorganisms, including perishables, probiotics, fermentative and pathogenic bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses, prions, and parasites. This accommodates different compositions of foods and beverages that combine different environmental factors that can affect microbial survival and growth. Food microbiology includes microorganisms that have beneficial or detrimental effects on food quality and safety and thus can raise public health concerns.

Session: 5 Environmental MicrobiologyMicrobial Ecology

Environmental Microbiology has been challenging in that although many exciting new areas have emerged, the fundamentals of the field remain as important foundations. Great strides have been made in expanding our knowledge in the areas of genetics, evolution, and diversity and yet we still do not have a clear idea of how this knowledge can be integrated into understanding and controlling microorganisms in the environment or even how to culture many microbes. We remind the reader that while the roots of environmental microbiology are perhaps most closely related to the field of microbial ecology, which comprises the study of the interaction of microorganisms within an environment, be it air, water, or soil, the primary difference between these two fields is that environmental microbiology is an applied field in which the driving question is, Because environmental microbes can affect so many aspects of life, and are easily transported between environments, the field of environmental microbiology interfaces with a number of different subspecialties, including soil, aquatic, and aero microbiology, as well as bioremediation, water quality, occupational health and infection control, food safety, and industrial microbiology

· Soil

· Aquatic

· Aero microbiology

· Bioremediation

· Plant Anatomy

· Microbial Genomics

· Tissue Culture

· Horticulture

· Plant Environment Interaction

· Plant Immune Response

· Photosynthesis

Session: 6 Molecular genetics

Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

· Forward genetics

· Reverse genetics

· Gene Therapy

· Gene transfer

· Amplification

Session: 7 Cell biology

Cell biology is the study of cell and its structure, components, metabolism and other various aspects and the very true nature of the cell. Cell is a basic unit of Life itself. It helps in understanding the way of communication between cells and their structural and bio chemical reactions which can give in a glimpse on Evolution of Life and their origin. Several techniques like cell culturecell fractionation and some instrumentals like phase contrast microscopes are used to study the cells. By studying these factors diseases and cancers can be cured by understanding the very nature of a cell.

Session: 8 Virology

Epidemiologic studies show that viral infections in developed countries are the most common cause of acute disease that does not require hospitalization. In developing countries, viral diseases also exact a heavy toll in mortality and permanent disability, especially among infants and children. Emerging viral diseases such as those due to HIVEbola virus and hantavirus, appear regularly. Now that antibiotics effectively control most bacterial infections, viral infections pose a relatively greater and less controlled threat to human health. Some data suggest that the already broad gamut of established viral diseases soon may be expanded to include other serious human ailments such as juvenile diabetesrheumatoid arthritis, various neurologic and immunologic disorders, and some tumours.

Viruses can infect all forms of life (bacteria, plants, protozoa, fungi, insects, fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals); however, this section covers only viruses capable of causing human infections. Like other microorganisms, viruses may have played a role in the natural selection of animal species. A documented example is the natural selection of rabbit’s resistant to virulent myxoma virus during several epidemics deliberately induced to control the rabbit population in Australia. Indirect evidence suggests that the same selective role was played by smallpox virus in humans. Another possible, though unproved, mechanism by which viruses may affect evolution is by introducing viral genetic material into animal cells by mechanisms similar to those that govern gene transfer by bacteriophages. For example, genes from avirulent retrovirus integrated into genomes of chickens or mice produce resistance to reinfection by related, virulent retroviruses. The same relationship may exist for human retroviruses, since human leukaemia-causing retroviruses have been reported.

Session: 9 Molecular biology

The field of molecular biology studies macromolecules and the macromolecular mechanisms found in living things, such as the molecular nature of the gene and its mechanisms of gene replication, mutation, and expression. Given the fundamental importance of these macromolecular mechanisms throughout the history of molecular biology, a philosophical focus on the concept of a mechanism generates the clearest picture of molecular biology’s history, concepts, and case studies utilized by philosophers of science.

Session: 10 Industrial Microbiology

Industrial Microbiology is a branch of applied microbiology in which microorganisms are used for the production of important substances, such as antibiotics, food products, enzymes, amino acids, vaccines, and fine chemicals. With respect to the scope, objectives, and activities, industrial microbiology is synonymous with the term fermentation, as fermentation includes any process mediated by or involving microorganisms in which a product of economic value is obtained. Industrial microbiology is achieved for large-scale use of microorganisms to synthesize products of commercial value and a wide variety of applications. Microbial products can be broadly categorized into: metabolic production; biotransformation; production of biofuels; treatment of organic and industrial wastes; recovery of metals; production of microbial biomass (microbial protein or single cell protein) for food and feed; production of biocontrol agents; and fermentation of food products. Microbial fermentation processes are therefore commercially exploited for the production of food ingredients. Metabolic engineering, a new approach involving the targeted and purposeful manipulation of the metabolic pathways of an organism, is being widely researched to improve the quality and yields of food ingredients. It typically involves alteration of cellular activities by the manipulation of the enzymatic transport, and regulatory functions of the cell using recombinant DNA and other genetic techniques. Understanding the metabolic pathways associated with these fermentation processes and the ability to redirect metabolic pathways can increase production of these metabolites and lead to production of novel metabolites and a diversified product base. Large-scale fermentation processes are specifically adjusted to microbial growth conditions.


· Food products

· Enzymes

· Amino acids

· Vaccines

· Chemicals

Session: 11 Bacteriology

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that lack a nuclear membrane, are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Medically they are a major cause of disease. Superficially, bacteria appear to be relatively simple forms of life; in fact, they are sophisticated and highly adaptable. Many bacteria multiply at rapid rates, and different species can utilize an enormous variety of hydrocarbon substrates, including phenol, rubber, and petroleum. These organisms exist widely in both parasitic and free - living forms. Because they are ubiquitous and have a remarkable capacity to adapt to changing environments by selection of spontaneous mutants, the importance of bacteria in every field of medicine cannot be overstated.

Major advances in bacteriology over the last century resulted in the development of many effective vaccines (e.g., pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid) as well as of other vaccines (e.g., cholera, typhoid, and plague vaccines) that are less effective or have side effects. Another major advance was the discovery of antibiotics. These antimicrobial substances have not eradicated bacterial diseases, but they are powerful therapeutic tools.

Session: 12 Mycology

Mycology is the discipline of science that portrays and examines an extremely immense gathering of life forms named fungi. This group contains around 90,000 species, and thousands are depicted each year, being assessed that there may be more than one million fungal species on the planet, which makes the fungi kingdom one of the most significant in the tree of life. Fungi are entirely variable in forms, since they incorporate both macroscopic, and minute microscopic life forms. Every one of them shares some common qualities. They are non-motile heterotrophic eukaryotes that have a cell wall around the cell, which contrasts from the cell wall of plants since it contains various components (essentially chitin). Most fungal organisms can reproduce by both sexual and agamic propagation. Although we don't know about it vividly, fungi have an incredible impact on our day-to-day propensities, and our society and way of living would be altogether different without these living beings. Fungal growths are generally found in the earth, and they have numerous beneficial impacts and applications. Mycologists straightforwardly centre around the scientific categorization, genetics, application just as numerous other attributes of this group of beings. Medical Mycology In current times, more than 50,000 types of fungal organisms have been recognized in various conditions over the globe. While some are free-living and have no effect on people, some are either valuable or unsafe making it important to consider and understand them. This has not just made it conceivable to develop medicines for sicknesses brought about by explicit types of fungi, yet additionally utilize certain species in an assortment of industries. Fungi cause a wide variety of ailments, from shallow cutaneous diseases with dermatophytes in the community to intrusive Candida and Aspergillus in seriously immunocompromised patients in the emergency clinic condition.

Session: 13 Protozoology

Protozoology is the study of protozoa, which are "animal-like" protists. The term is obsolete due to a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships of eukaryotes. For example, the Society of Protozoa, founded in 1947, was renamed the International Society of Protistology in 2005. However, the term may persist. Protozoology is a branch of biology dealing with protozoa. Protozoa are eukaryotes that belong to a group characterized as unicellular, most of which are motile and heterotrophic. In the five kingdom schemes for classifying organisms, they belong to taxonomic groups within the kingdom of protists and are usually classified based on the means of transport of flagellates, amoebas, sporozoas, and ciliates. Protozoology studies these organisms in terms of taxonomy, morphological features, medical significance, and more. People who specialize in this particular area of biology are called protozoologists. One of these prominent protozoologists is Stanislav von Prowazek. He is an Austrian protozoologist and parasitologist, known for his work and head of the Protozoenkunde division of the Imperial Health Department in Berlin. He first showed that special stage in the body of a rat host. However, the term protozoology is less common than it used to be, and protozoology prefers the scientific study of organisms that have come to be called protozoa along with eukaryotes such as algae and other plants. Please note. Historically, protozoa have been divided into four major groups: amoebas, flagellates, ciliates, and sporozoa. The distinguishing features between the groups were based on motility (i.e., amoeba, flagella, and cilia). Parasitic protozoa were a heterogeneous group that produced spores at one stage of their life cycle and exhibited "sliding" motility. In addition to the form of asexual reproduction, many protozoa also exhibit sexual reproduction. This sexual reproduction may involve the production and fusion of gametes in a process similar to that of higher organisms. In summary, protozoa are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms.

Session: 14 Biotechnology

The concept of biotechnology encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of the plants, and "improvements" to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies. The American Chemical Society defines biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science of life and the improvement of the value of materials and organisms such as pharmaceuticals, crops, and livestock. As per the European Federation of Biotechnologybiotechnology is the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services. Biotechnology is based on the basic biological sciences (e.g., molecular biologybiochemistrycell biologyembryologygeneticsmicrobiology) and conversely provides methods to support and perform basic research in biology. Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation, and production from any living organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products). The utilization of biological processes, organisms or systems to produce products that are anticipated to improve human lives is termed biotechnology.

Session: 15 Astro microbiology

Astro microbiology, or exo microbiology, is the study of microorganisms in outer space. It stems from an interdisciplinary approach, which incorporates both microbiology and astrobiology. Astrobiology's efforts are aimed at understanding the origins of life and the search for life other than on Earth. Because microorganisms are the most widespread form of life on Earth, and are capable of colonizing almost any environment, scientists usually focus on microbial life in the field of astrobiology. Moreover, small and simple cells usually evolve first on a planet rather than larger, multicellular organisms, and have an increased likelihood of being transported from one planet to another via the panspermia theory

Session: 16 Veterinary Microbiology

Veterinary Microbiology is worried with microbial (bacterial, fungal, viral) sicknesses of domesticated animals (livestock, associate animals, furbearing animals, game, poultry, and fish) that deliver meals, different beneficial merchandise or companionship. In addition, Microbial sicknesses of untamed animals dwelling in captivity, or as individuals of the feral fauna may also be taken into consideration if the infections are due to their interrelation with humans (zoonoses) and home animals, or for comparative or different clinical reasons. Studies of antimicrobial resistance also are included. Original studies papers of excessive nice and novelty on factors of control, diagnosis; immunologymolecular biologypathogenesis, prevention, and remedy of microbial sicknesses of animals are published. Papers of geographically restrained interest, which repeat what were hooked up someplace else, will now no longer be accepted. The readership of the magazine is global. Papers can be rejected if requirements are care of techniques achieved on; animals aren't as much as the ones anticipated of humane veterinary scientists. Pathogenic microorganism and contamination are resulting from the infiltration of a sickness inflicting microorganism called pathogenic microorganism. Some pathogenic microorganism infects humans, different animals and plant. Fleas jumped from Rodents and bit people, transmitting Yersinia pestis into the person’s blood stream. Non-Pathogenic microorganism not all microorganism are pathogens. In reality many microorganisms assist to keep homeostasis in our bodies and are used with inside the manufacturing of meals and different industrial merchandise. For instance, microorganism discovered in our gut that help with inside the digestion of meals and play essential function with inside the formation of nutrients together with nutrition B and nutrition K. microorganism are the difficulty of microbiology, that's the department of technological know-how that research microorganism. A microorganism may be one molecular or a cluster of cells that may be visible best through the use of a microscope.

Session: 17 Phycology

Phycology, also called algology, the study of algae, a large heterogeneous group of chiefly aquatic plants ranging in size from microscopic forms to species as large as shrubs or trees. The discipline is of immediate interest to humans because of algae’s importance in ecology. Certain algae, especially planktonic (i.e., floating or drifting) forms, constitute a vital segment of food chains. In coastal regions many large species of algae are supplementary food sources for humans. In industry some algae are sources of commercially valuable substances such as iodine, agar, carrageenan, alginic acid, and potash. Other alga products are used in insulating materials, bricks, scouring powder, and filters. Certain species are used in sewage-oxidation ponds.

Session: 18 Parasitology

Medical parasitology traditionally has included the study of three major groups of animals: parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminths (worms), and those arthropods that directly cause disease or act as vectors of various pathogens. A parasite is a pathogen that simultaneously injures and derives sustenance from its host. Some organisms called parasites are actually commensals, in that they neither benefit nor harm their host (for example, Entamoeba coli). Although parasitology had its origins in the zoologic sciences, it is today an interdisciplinary field, greatly influenced by microbiologyimmunologybiochemistry, and other life sciences. Infections of humans caused by parasites number in the billions and range from relatively innocuous to fatal. The diseases caused by these parasites constitute major human health problems throughout the world. (For example, approximately 30 percent of the world's population is infected with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.) The incidence of many parasitic diseases (e.g., schistosomiasis, malaria) have increased rather than decreased in recent years. Other parasitic illnesses have increased in importance as a result of the AIDS epidemic (e.g., cryptosporidiosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and strongyloidiasis). The migration of parasite-infected people, including refugees, from areas with high prevalence rates of parasitic infection also has added to the health problems of certain countries. A misconception about parasitic infections is that they occur only in tropical areas. Although most parasitic infections are more prevalent in the tropics, many people in temperate and subtropical areas also become infected, and visitors to tropical countries may return with a parasite infection.

Session: 19 Clinical Microbiology

Clinical microbiology is a discipline that encompasses a broad range of testing methodologies, and it is complex in terms of organisms and methods used to isolate and identify them. Although significant improvements in testing methodologies have been made, clinical microbiology remains heavily reliant on culture-based methods and phenotypic methods for identification of culture organisms. The wide variety of pathogens and testing methods that are available makes microbiological testing challenging, and thus error detection and correction are important components of quality microbiology laboratory testing. Errors may occur at all stages of testing (pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical), and an error in one stage of testing is likely to overlap with or lead to errors in other stages (e.g., incorrect specimen collection can lead to culture, identification, and reporting of organisms that are not involved in the disease process and to incorrect or unnecessary antimicrobial therapy as a result). In the clinical microbiology laboratory, as in every other discipline, the frequency of analytical errors has been reduced considerably with the implementation of quality control and quality assurance programs. Despite the improvements in microbiological testing, microorganisms remain a constant challenge, and errors do occasionally occur. This chapter discusses some of the common interferences in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

Session: 20 Nematology

Nematology is a branch of biology that deals primarily with roundworms or nematodes. It became a field in its own right in the mid-to-late nineteenth century. 1 Nematodes belong to the phylum Nematode. They are characterized by an early pulmonary stage associated with larval locomotion followed by a prolonged intestinal stage. Adult worms are 15–40 cm long and reside in the lumen of the small intestine. Infection occurs after eating eggs contained in contaminated food or, more commonly, by hand-to-mouth infection after contact with contaminated soil. Treatment is with mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate. A nematologist is a person who specializes in this field. Nathan Augustus Cobb is considered the father of nematology. He was able to describe several nematode speciesFrench nematologist Michel Luc is considered the father of plant nematology. He is also known for his work on nematode taxonomy. Another prominent nematologist is Gregor Willian Yates. He is known for his work on nematodes in non-agricultural environments, especially sand dunes.
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